MNA

Equality in Nursing

MNA - Equality in Nursing

Cultural Competencies in Healthcare

Cultural diversity is important and this understanding is not only important for the general public but it is also exceptionally important for healthcare workers.

This video provides a few tips about cultural diversity.

It is appropriate for those who hold a career in the medical field, such as nurses and physicians, and have constant contact with patients, but it provides thinking points for nursing students just starting out.

As you can see, once you get accepted into nursing school, have your books, and begin your clinical and classroom instruction, you will never be done learning. Sure, you can follow a guide about how many years it takes to become a nurse, graduate, and get a job, but it will take years before you become an experienced nurse.

During that time, you’ll constantly learn about your patients and how certain cultures do certain things or act certain ways.

You’ll also learn that the concept of stereotyping — which you are doing when classifying certain cultures certain way is in accurate, as well.

It’s important to have a good understanding of a culture’s tendencies but recognize the individual’s needs and make sure they are met.

Discrimination and stereotyping

Stereotyping is when someone is generalized for belonging to a special group or type and discrimination is when we are behaving a little differently towards that person because she or he is different or belong to a specific group or genre.

Dangerous stereotypes exist about different cultures or even countries as a whole, such as: all Mexicans are lazy and illegal immigrants of USA, all Muslims are terrorists, all English citizens have bad teeth, all Asians are Mathematics wizards and all Jews are greedy.

Such stereotypes are often publicized in media, but most certainly leave the message in everyone’s minds.

Stereotyping is not only hurtful to its victim; it is also unjust and wrong. Stereotyping creates divisions in a society based on presumptions where people decide for themselves what a person is like, rather than getting to know him or her.

Subtle Forms of Discrimination against Muslims

There exist some extremely subtle and almost unrecognizable forms of discrimination in the workplace and in other aspects of life that might not even make sense to a lot of people.

Nonetheless, these discrepancies exist and a number of people, including Muslims, have to face them in their everyday lives.

Pew research about Muslim discrimination

According to Pew Research, Muslim Americans cite the biggest problem they face in the U.S. is a negative view of their culture, along with misconceptions, discrimination, and prejudiced against Islam.

In a country like the United States of America, the total population is made up of immigrants from a number of foreign nations, ranging from developed from English speaking countries such as the United Kingdom to African countries such as Ghana or Ethiopia.

It’s amazing that such a melting pot of cultures can cause such ignorance against one another.

Language discrimination

Everybody has a different accent and different language, whether you are from Alabama, Boston, or grew up in an Islamic family.

This gives rise to linguicism, or bias against people’s accents, vocabulary or diction.

In job interviews, having a foreign accent can convince the potential employers that the applicant might not be an efficient worker, even after being more qualified than a native.

It’s unfortunate that a highly-qualified nurse could be discriminated against because of an accent.

Having a stutter or a speech disorder can decrease the chances of getting a job, or being able to stay at the job, or securing a promotion or raise. Even with a highly qualified and educated employee, many employees feel like stutterers cannot perform a job well, or handle responsibilities with ease.

Discrimination against women

Discrimination towards women takes various forms in the workplace. Not in all cases is gender discrimination as strong as the female workers being directly denied a promotion or openly being sexually harassed by other.

In some cases, it is as simple as calling female colleagues ‘Hunny’, or ‘Sweetheart’, or making a sexist joke or snide comments about a fellow female colleague.

Pregnant women or new mothers are often thought to be emotional and unable to handle major responsibilities as they are going through mental and hormonal changes. Commenting or complimenting a female colleague on her physical appearance is also a very mild form of discrimination.

In the case of Muslim nurses, physical discrimination can be brought on by the headscarf or hijab.

Small events of subtle racial discrimination are always present in everyday rituals, sometimes unnoticed by all and often involuntary.

Keeping an African-American woman waiting at the departmental store and serving others, serving a Hispanic family late in a restaurant, refusing to rent an apartment to a Asian student – these are all small acts of discrimination that often stay hidden and unnoticed by all.

Physical disabilities

Students with some kind of physical disabilities are sometimes advised to take easier subjects in case they may not be able to handle the pressures of a high demanding subject like physics or medicine.

Though there is nothing wrong with the student mentally or emotionally, only physical disability keeps him from choosing a subject to his liking. Again, a person with minor physical disabilities or illness may be passed over for an important assignment because he or she may not be up for it.

Ethnic and exotic names are sometimes discriminated against in mixed race countries like the United States. Recent studies show that, names like ‘Aisha’, ‘DeShaun’, ‘Lakisha’ and ‘Jamal’ are called in less for job interviews than all-American names like ‘Cody’, ‘Emily’ or ‘Greg’.

To avoid being discriminated against, many Jews in the US have changed their names slightly to sound more American, like changing ‘Stein’ to ‘Stone’.

Many African-American and Hispanic parents are now choosing American-sounding names instead of names that belong to their culture to make sure their children are accepted everywhere.

Subtle discriminations are usually mild and harmless, but it is unfair and wrong nevertheless. People really need to change their perspective about a number of things and people to treat everybody equally.

Democracy and Gender Equality in the Muslim World

Gender equality implies that a man and woman should be treated equally in every aspect of life, unless there is a biological reason not to. Except biologically, woman and man should ideally have the same rights at home, in the workplace, equal voting rights and right to own property and wealth. However, the real picture is very different almost everywhere.

Even in developed and progressive countries, from since a very long time, the male members of the family are the chief breadwinners while the women maintain their homes and raise children. With the gradual increase of female education, the number of working women is now-a-days almost equal to the male working population. Even so, the idea of a woman extremely immersed in her career or a man staying home to raise children – in other words, reversed roles – are not truly acceptable.

According to the U.S. Census, women earn 77 percent of what men earn in lieu of the same amount of work. This discrimination is because of the thought that women do not need to support a family of her own, they are generally complementing their male partners with her income; whereas, a man very often has to support his family with his single income.

However, in a number of Eastern countries, especially in Asia, Middle East and Africa, the primary duty of the female population is to remain at home as the male members of the family earn a living. In some countries, the number of working women compared to men is as low as almost nil.

In some Middle Eastern countries, women are not allowed to drive a car, or get out of the house without a male chaperone with them. Some other countries restrict females from travelling overseas without a male family member with them.

One of the most serious forms of inequality is violence against. Both in developing and developed countries, statistics show that one in three women is beaten, sexually or otherwise abused in her lifetime. The number of woman who have faced such violence from her family and partners, in forms of marital rape, spousal abuse, child abuse or spousal killing is extremely high in both the backward as well as the progressive societies.

Another extremely violent and dangerous discrimination against woman is infanticide and female feticide. China’s one-child policy and the preference of male child in India gave rise to termination of pregnancy and killing of female infants, reducing the ratio of female to male children as low as 927:1000.

The female population of the world has very recently gained the right to vote in the early 1900s. Before this time, women had no right to vote for any political parties during election. Besides, despite being half the population of the world, women hold only 15.6% or elected government seats around the world. Some countries have quota systems to increase the number female participation in politics.

Women consist of two-third of the population who is illiterate and uneducated. In most underdeveloped countries of the world, young girls are pulled out of school to look after their home, raise their younger siblings or to be married off. Being married of at an early age, they contribute largely in the increasing population, as well as the growing number of infant and maternity mortality.

In many countries of the world, husbands have rights to divorce their wives at any time for even the simplest reasons, but the women do not have similar facility. Polygamy is still accepted in some societies where a man has several wives at one time.

Even today, in many countries, women are beaten and tortured for standing against men and asserting their rights. In such extreme patriarchy societies, the government and law and order is silent to help these woman.

As gradually as science and technology is progressing almost daily, there are still some extreme dark corners of our civilization where severe injustice takes place regularly, and the female population of the world is its main victim.

Discrimination

Source: Christine Ghobrial (CC-BY-2.0) -- flickr.com/photos/tinish/5491841045

Source: Christine Ghobrial (CC-BY-2.0) — flickr.com/photos/tinish/5491841045

While some forms of discrimination is open and direct, there are still some forms of discrimination in society that is subtle and often impossibly difficult to determine, such as the types of discrimination based on the physical appearance of an individual. It is usually very indirect and masked.

Discrimination based on the physical attractiveness or physical defect of a person is thoughtless and shallow, but is nevertheless present in many aspects of modern life.

For men in a female dominated workplace such as hospital nursing, men are in a minority and may be called upon to help lift a patient.

Personal lives

Both in personal lives or in case of jobs, attractive men and women have better progress than people who are less attractive than them. In case of choosing a partner, both men and women voluntarily or involuntarily look for attractive features in the opposite sex (or the same sex).

The reason behind this may be the ancient trait of mankind to father attractive children, but nonetheless, almost everyone place importance on the attractiveness of their partners when it comes to choice.

Even in the workplace, it is seen that attractive people are preferred to less attractive people.

It is sometimes thought that if a person is good looking, she or he may possess other good qualities too. Attractive male and female candidates are preferred in case of jobs that require contacting clients and customers on a face-to-face basis; such as a receptionist, restaurant hostess and others.

Though some career choices require a minimum standard height of its candidates such as in the fields of defense, modeling or sports, other career opportunities also prefer their applicants to demonstrate a good height. Especially in case of men, a height of less than 5’8”, which is standard in the US, can be a victim of discrimination.

In case of romance or searching for one’s partner in life, a short stature can be a deal breaker. Almost all women prefer their partners to be tall, and some men also have the same criteria for women.

Obesity

Obesity or overweight is a medical concern as well as a reason to fall victim of discrimination. Obesity is considered to be an unattractive feature in both men and women in almost all aspects of life.

In case of a job application, obese people, even with a higher educational degree or qualification than others, may be considered to be slow and as a result inefficient.

Even at jobs that has nothing to do with the physical appearance of a person or require them to be slender, many men and women face discriminative behavior from their supervisors and peers.

Age and race

Other main discriminations based on human appearance can be based on age and color.
Many organizations have a certain age range of employees that they employ or prefer to employ.

According to them, employees past a certain age limit become slow and unproductive in their work and are not very open to new ideas. Also, as they have experience, they demand a higher wage but prove to be a bad investment as they are unlikely to continue working for a long time. On the other hand, young people lack experience and do not have the confidence to take important decisions in times of need.

Discrimination based on color, or racism, is probably one of the most important forms of discriminations and one that is most common. People belonging to minor ethnicity or a different skin color face various forms of discriminations in the workplace regarding hiring, firing, promotion or benefits.

Perhaps another very serious discrimination is seen against the physically disabled. Under the American with Disabilities Act(ADA), all employees who are subjected to any forms of physical disability is protected in terms of hiring, firing, promotion, wage or benefits; but in many organizations, people with minor physical disabilities are straight right denied of a job or a further promotion thinking that they would fail to show productivity or perform their duty efficiently.

Discrimination, especially discrimination based on physical aspects or physical appearances of a person is one of the most unfair aspects of modern life, but nonetheless is visible almost everywhere.

Concepts of Social Equality

Social equality implies to a state of equal rights, status and obligations among all men and women in a certain society.

It is an ideal situation when all living men in a community share the same voting right, financial independence, freedom of speech, right to own property and access to all kinds of social goods despite difference in gender, race, age or ethnicity.

As idealistic as that may sound, social equality is very rare in all societies. In every society and every country, we see one form of social inequality or another that everyone has to face in their lives.

Gender inequality

Gender inequality is common in almost all societies. Even in modern and developed societies, men are considered as the bread-earners of the family whereas the chief responsibilities of the women consist of maintaining the house and raising children.

Even with the gradual increase of highly qualified women in the workplace, the roles haven’t been changed completely. A woman completely absorbed in her career forsaking a family life, or a man choosing to stay home to look after the children is still frowned upon in the most advanced of societies.

Though in almost every society and country, woman has the same rights to property as a man, in most cases it is seen that the maximum important properties of the family, mainly the house or the car, is purchased under the name of the man.

Age discrimination

Age discrimination is seen mostly in the workplace, where people over or under a certain age has difficulty in ensuring a job for themselves based on their age. Though there exists a law under every State and Federal Law in the US, age discrimination is still prevalent in a number of organizations.

Caste inequality

Caste inequality is an aspect that is not seen in the developed countries, but still exists in some of the traditional and backward nations of the world.

Besides, racial inequality is an aspect prevailing in every society. Regardless of gender or age, people belonging to diverse race, ethnicity or color face different types of discrimination in the workplace, in educational institutions and in the outside world. It is very difficult to pinpoint or determine racial discrimination, especially in the workplace, as it can be heavily masked by other aspects of the person, such as inexperience or lack or innovation.

However, discrimination in every form is prohibited under every State and Federal law in the US. In every political system, there are different types of equality rules and laws that are found.

Civil, political, natural, and economic equality

Civil equality implies that every individual is subjected to enjoy the rights and liberations, as well as obligations of the same law living under the same State. Under this law, all citizens have to be treated equally regardless of caste, color, religion or belief.

According to political equality, all individuals and citizens of a Nation have equal political rights and equal access to all government offices. It also means that everyone has the right to form or to join a political party and contest in election.

Natural equality assumes that all people are born equal and free and endowed with the same talents. Social Equality implies that all citizens of a state or nation are free to enjoy all the opportunities offered in a society.

Economic equality means that all wealth should be enjoyed equally and by all. This concept is hugely favored in the Communist countries.

If all the laws of equality in the society are maintained, all citizens of all nations would live in perfect harmony with each other. However, that is not the case in most societies, where acute inequality prevails.

Workplace Inequality Based on Gender

Source: Paul Sherbert Photography (CC-BY-2.0) flickr.com/photos/purplesherbet/10208318035

Source: Paul Sherbert Photography (CC-BY-2.0) flickr.com/photos/purplesherbet/10208318035

Equality in the workplace, or rather, the lack of equality in the job market is a topic which everyone must have faced more or less. Most commonly, we see inequality based on gender, ethnicity or class, even age and background; though the gender inequality is most universal.

Gender inequality in the workplace is generally bias against women, generally regarding power and the chain of command. Women are regarded as weak and not equal to their male counterparts, even when they are equally efficient and capable of handling responsibilities.

In many societies, women are considered mainly as the homemaker, their main task being taking care of her home and bring up children. However educated women might be, or however career-oriented in her life, in many communities, her career is considered as a secondary goal or an option for her. Even in civilized and developed countries, the notion varies only a little.

Despite having a higher level of education and qualification, they are often given inferior job responsibilities in fear that they would not be able to do it properly.

Women often face problems regarding raise or promotions also. It is generally believed that since the responsibilities of maintaining a family does not solely depend on the woman, as it does on the man of the household in many cases, they do not require as much financial support as the male worker does.

Due to superstition in some cases, some people regard the intellectual of women to be inferior to a man in the same profession. People often regard female doctors, lawyers or engineers not to be as efficient as any man.

In jobs that center around hard labor, or using physical strength rather than the mind, women workers may be passed over repeatedly when the question of promotion or raise arise; especially in case of jobs like a police women or a fire fighter.

Pregnant women or women with small children are also thought to have low productivity in some cases. It is often a misconception that women who are expecting lose their mental balance at times and not perform well in their responsibilities. Mothers with small children are often distracted and tend to lose focus in their work.

In many workplace, women face problems regarding maternity leave. Maternity leave varies with each organization or country, but women often face problems with gaining a suitable length of leave according to their need. Women also have trouble reissuing command over her colleagues after coming back to work. Since she is a mother, some of her colleagues may consider her to be weaker and of a softer nature than before she left.

Women may also face various forms of sexual harassment at her workplace also, both in forms of mild flirtation or admiration and direct invitations. Though some of these advances from fellow male colleagues or supervisors may seem harmless, but they are never-the-less illegal and can be subjected to inquiry and punishment.

Such problems in the workplace could really distract a woman and make her lose concentration in her work. It lowers her productivity in work and becomes very hard to give one’s best to any job at hand. Continuous discrimination could be the source of mental unhappiness in a person. Inappropriate advances from male colleagues may result in distress in a woman’s personal or family life also.

If any woman feels as if she is facing such disparity in her workplace, she may challenge the authorities in her organization to demand a fair inquiry. In other cases, if the female worker belongs to any union, she may seek their help in the matter.

Though gender disparity prevails in many cases, women are gradually being taken seriously in the workplace these days.